The vast and broad scope of chemistry comprises Solving equations, making reactants to react, calculating products and all, acting under several kinds of favorable or not so desired environments.
Chemistry is such a diverse field that one can do maths, medics, and physics in this single subject. All these subjects demand Calculus, and Yield calculations are one of many important tools that chemistry provides. Theoretical yield, you can also call it the basic yield calculation. As it usually calculates the net amount of product in a chemical reaction or an equation. Theoretical yield calculations are required to proceed with any other yield calculations.
What is Theoretical yield?
Generally, the theoretical yield is the quantity of a product obtained from the conversion of a limiting reactant into a product in a chemical reaction.
It is the total amount of a product resulting from a perfect chemical conversion of reactants into a chemical reaction. This result or calculation of the net amount of product is in theoretical form, and thus not the same as the amount calculated at the lab.
Theoretical yield is mostly expressed in terms of grams (g) or moles (mol).
Significance of chemical equations
A chemical equation is a state which involves two or more chemical elements that go through a reaction acting as reactants that are Limiting reactants. The reactants undergo specific reacting agents to produce the best possible products as final products. A chemical reaction is performed in which the reactants give the final products, compiling a perfect chemical equation. And to obtain a theoretical yield, the chemical equation needs to be a balanced equation. Chemical equation balancing calculators can also be used so that you can find the accurate balanced equation for further process.
How to calculate the theoretical yield?
To determine the theoretical yield of any chemical equation, the first thing you need to do is balance the given chemical equation if needed. Theoretical yield can be found by identifying the limiting reactants from the balanced chemical equation.
In order to determine the limiting reactants, you must know the mole ratio between the reactants. Once the limiting reactants are consumed, the reaction ceases, so identify them well.
To find the limiting reactant:
1. If the given quantity, if reactants are in moles, you need to convert the values into grams.
- Now divide the mass of the reactants in grams by its molecular weight.
- Then multiply the mass obtained by the number of moles of reactant in the balanced equation.
While performing any chemical reaction, it is helpful to know how much product will be produced with the given quantities. This information proved helpful in calculating the yield of that chemical reaction and, these are the calculations we use to call Theoretical yield.
Here is an example calculation of theoretical yield, simple yet easy to understand
You have 10 grams of hydrogen gas, burned in the presence of oxygen to get water. Calculate the total amount of water you get.
The equation would be something like
H2g + O2g 🡪 H2O
As you can see, the equation is not balanced, so firstly, balance the equation.
2H2g + O2g –> 2H2O
Now the above equation is balanced.
Determine the mole ratio between reactants and products. For this reaction, every two moles of the hydrogen gas used to give two moles of water as a product. So the mole ratio between 2mol of hydrogen gas (2H2)/2mol of water (2H2O).
- Now you have gathered the information required to calculate the Theoretical yield.
- Use the molar mass of reactants to convert the grams into moles for further calculation.
- Here you can utilize the mole ratio between reactants and products to convert mole reactants to mole products.
- Apply the molar mass of the product to convert a mole product into grams of the product.
As you need your final product easy to calculate and, in grams, calculations can be way easier than in moles. You can also use an online theoretical yield calculator for calculating equations quickly.